According to DIN-Norm VDI/VDE/DKD 2638

AE: Unit of indication

Accuracy class

Information about accuracy class: Sensors::Accuracy

Bending moment effect [AE/N·m]

Deviation of the output signal of the force transducer due to a bending moment.

Bending moment limit [N·m]

Permissible static bending moment which when the transducer is simultaneously loaded to rated force does not produce any permanent significant changes in the metrological properties of the force transducer up to rated force.

Breaking force

Force of the force transducer above which mechanical destruction is to be reckoned with

Characteristic curve [-]

Curve describing the dependence of the output signal on force

Characteristic value [AE]

Output signal at rated force, F_{nom}, decreased by the zero signal in the mounted state S_{F0}.

Characteristic value range [AE]

Range within which the characteristic value of the transducer lies. (This statement is common practice for transducers whose characteristic value has not been adjusted.)

Compression force [N]

Force in the direction of compression acting onto a compression force or universal force transducer.

Effect of excitation voltage on characteristic value [%]

Relative variation of the characteristic value of the force transducer due to variation of the excitation voltage in the rated range of the excitation voltage, B_{U, nom}.

d_{C,U}=(C_{Umax}-C_{Umin})/C_{nom}

The voltage range is to be stated.

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) [-]

Details regarding immunity from interference and electromagnetic emissions and incident radiation.

Eccentricity effect [AE/mm]

Output signal of the force transducer at rated force due to a defined displacement of the force action line parallel to the measurement axis. The greatest eccentricity effect in the plane vertical to the measurement axis is to be stated.

Excitation voltage effect on zero signal [%]

Variation of the zero signal of the force transducer, in relation to the rated characteristic value, due to variation of the excitation voltage in the rated range of the excitation voltage, B_{BU, nom}. The voltage range is to be stated.

Force [N]

Vectorial physical quantity with point of application, direction of action and amount

(1 N = 1 kg·m·s^{–2}).

Force introduction effect

Maximum deviation of the output signal of the force transducer when using different kinds of force introduction, in relation to the output signal decreased by the zero signal in the mounted state providing correct force introduction

Force limit [N]

Force above which permanent significant changes in the metrological properties of the force transducer are to be reckoned with.

Force measurement range [N]

Measurement range in which a force transducer is used. A force transducer may have several measurement ranges. Within these ranges the associated error limits have to be complied with. Each measurement range is limited by an initial value F_{A} and a final value F_{E}.

Frequency effect of excitation voltage on zero signal [%]

Maximum deviation of the zero signal, in relation to the rated characteristic value, due to variation of the carrier frequency of the excitation voltage.

The frequency range is to be stated

Frequency effect of excitation voltage on characteristic value [%]

Maximum deviation of the characteristic value, in relation to the rated characteristic value, due to variation of the carrier frequency of the excitation voltage.

The frequency range is to be stated

Input resistance [Ω]

Ohmic resistance of the force transducer measured between the excitation/supply voltage connections.

Insulation resistance [Ω]

Ohmic resistance, measured between the connecting lines and the elastic body of the force transducer. The test voltage is to be stated.

Lateral force limit [N]

Permissible static lateral force which, when the transducer is simultaneously loaded to rated force, does not produce any permanent significant changes in the metrological properties of the force transducer up to rated force |

Lateral force effect [AE/N]

Relative deviation of the output signal of the force transducer due to a lateral force of 10 % of the acting force. The lateral force shall be applied vertical to the measurement axis in the point of force introduction. The greatest lateral force effect in the plane vertical to the measurement axis is to be stated.

Mass [kg]

Mass of the force transducer without force introduction parts. |

Maximum operating force [N]

Greatest force of the force transducer up to which there is a defined and repeatable relation between force and output signal but any protection against overloading does not yet operate. |

Measuring spring rigidity [N/mm]

Ratio of the force to the axial deformation of the measuring spring, measured between the positions of force introduction and release (in the case of defined adaptations). |

Mounting effect on zero signal [%]

Relative variation of the zero signal, in relation to the rated characteristic value, when fastening the force transducer to a base plate according to the mounting instructions, e. g. using screws or clamping pads |

Operating range of excitation voltage [V]

Range of the excitation voltage in which the force Note: For force transducers with integrated electronics, the supply voltage (Section 3.6.14) is substituted for the excitation voltage. |

Operating temperature range [°C]

Range of the ambient temperature in which the force transducer may be operated tolerating higher error limits without permanent significant changes in the metrological properties of the transducer being detectable when using the transducer again within the rated temperature range. |

Output resistance [Ω]

Ohmic resistance of the force transducer, measured between the output voltage connections.

Permissible eccentricity of force introduction [mm]

Permissible displacement of the force action line parallel to the measurement axis of the force transducer at rated force without permanent significant changes in the metrological properties of the force transducer being produced up to rated force.

Protection [-]

Degree of protection provided by the enclosure according to DIN EN 60529. It indicates to what extent the force transducer is protected from humidity and dust as well as from the ingress of solid foreign bodies

Rated range of excitation voltage [V]

Range of the excitation voltage in which the force transducer complies with the error limits for its technical data |

Rated characteristic value [AE]

Target value (theoretical value) for the characteristic value. |

Relative characteristic value difference, tension/compression force [%]

Difference between the characteristic values under tension and compression force, in relation to the characteristic value for compression force.

Relative creep [-]

By creep the time-dependent variation of the output signal of the force transducer after force variation is understood. A distinction is to be made between:

- creep under load
- creep when load is relieved

Note: To obviate the prior history of the force transducer, the latter is to be loaded once with rated force. After preloading, five times the time of preloading must elapse before starting the measurement proper

Rated force [N]

Greatest force for which the transducer is nominally designed, i. e. up to which the manufacturer’s metrological specifications are complied with. |

Rated displacement [mm]

Spring excursion of the outer force introduction points or surfaces of the force transducer in the direction of measurement relative to one another due to loading with rated force. The mounting and measurement conditions are to be stated. |

Rated temperature range [°C]

Range of the ambient temperature in which the force transducer complies with the error limits for the temperature-dependent technical data. |

Relative error of characteristic value [%]

Relative deviation of the characteristic value from the rated characteristic value. (This statement is common practice for transducers whose characteristic value has been adjusted.)

Relative deviation of characteristic curve [%]

Deviation of a characteristic curve value, recorded over one loading cycle, from the reference straight line, in relation to the appropriate value of the reference straight line. (The maximum relative deviation of the characteristic curve, d_{k max}, for the force measurement range from 0,2 · F_{nom} to 1,0 · F_{nom} as well as the method for determining the reference straight line are to be stated.)

Relative deviation of zero signal [%]

Maximum deviation of the zero signal in the removed state, in relation to the rated characteristic value, from the value zero.

Relative linearity error [%]

Maximum deviation of a characteristic curve of a force transducer, determined at increasing force, from the reference straight line, in relation to the upper limit of the measurement range used. The measurement range is to be stated.

Relative repeatability error in unchanged mounting position [%]

Maximum difference of the output signals at equal force, determined from several series of measurements without the mounting position being changed, in relation to the mean output signal decreased by the zero signal in the mounted state. The number of the measurement series is to be stated. b_{rg }is a measure of the repeatability

Relative reproducibility error in different mounting positions [%]

Maximum difference of the output signals at equal force in different mounting positions, in relation to the mean output signal decreased by the zero signal in the mounted state. The number of the series of measurements and of the positions in which the measurements are carried out are to be stated. b_{rv} is a measure of the reproducibility

Relative reversibility error [%]

Difference of the output signals of an increasing and decreasing series at equal force, F, in relation to the output signal at increasing force, decreased by the zero signal in the mounted state. (For the determination of the reversibility error, the loading cycle up to rated force is to be plotted. The greatest relative reversibility error, v_{max}, and the force measurement range used are to be stated

Relative zero signal hysteresis [%]

Zero signal difference in the mounted state, over a complete alternating force cycle with F_{nom}, in relation to the rated characteristic value.

Storage temperature range [°C]

Range of the ambient temperature in which the mechanically and electrically unstressed force transducer may be stored without permanent significant changes in the metrological properties of the transducer being detectable when using the transducer again within the rated temperature range. |

Supply voltage [V]

Operating voltage (mains or battery supply) of the measuring amplifier of the measuring chain.

Temperature effect on characteristic value [%/10 K]

Relative variation of the characteristic value of the force transducer due to variation of the ambient air, Ti by 10 K, within a defined temperature range after steady states free of gradients have been adjusted.

TK_{C}=(C_{(Ti+10K)}-C_{Ti})/C_{Ti}

(The maximum value of TK_{C} and the temperature range are to be stated.)

Temperature effect on zero signal [%/10 K]

Variation of the zero signal of the force transducer, in relation to the rated characteristic value, due to variation of the ambient temperature, T_{i }by 10 K, within a defined temperature range after steady states free of gradients have been adjusted.

TK_{0}=(S_{0(Ti+10K)}-S_{0,Ti})/C_{nom}

(The greatest value of TK_{0 }and the temperature range are to be stated.)

Tension force [N]

Force in the direction of tension acting onto a tension force or universal force transducer.

Torque effect [AE/N·m]

Relative deviation of the output signal of the force transducer due to a torque around the measurement axis. The torque is to be stated |

Torque limit [N·m]

Permissible torque around the measurement axis of the force transducer which when the transducer is simultaneously loaded to rated force does not produce any permanent significant changes in the metrological properties of the force transducer up to rated force. |

Zero signal when removed [AE]

Output signal of the unloaded force transducer, without mounting parts. |

Zero signal when mounted [AE]

Output signal of the force transducer when not mechanically loaded, with mounting parts, at the beginning of a loading cycle |